Angiosperms, flowering plants, are divided into two groups: monocots and dicots. Features of monocot and dicot plants. Images from Purves et al. Monocot seeds have one "seed leaf" termed a cotyledon in fact monocot is a shortening of monocotyledon. Dicots have two cotyledons. Both groups, however, have the same basic architecture of nodes, internodes, etc.
This section describes the structure of dicotyledonous roots and stems, followed by a description of the structure of the cells in the different tissues. Learners can use microscopes or photomicrographs to observe and draw cross sections of the root and stem. Slides can be made from celery or pumpkin stalks to view xylem tissue and secondary thickening patterns. This section can also be linked to mitotic cell division when describing the secondary growth. Link the annual rings in a tree trunk to environmental studies climate change which will be taught later. Annual rings are also used to assess the age of a tree.
Buttercup Young and Mature Roots, c.s. Microscope Slide
These two tissues extend from the leaves to the roots, and are vital conduits for water and nutrient transport. In a sense, they are to plants what veins and arteries are to animals. The structure of xylem and phloem tissue depends on whether the plant is a flowering plant including dicots and monocots or a gymnosperm polycots. The terms dicot, monocot and polycot are summarized in the following table.